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doctors of nephrology duty in Pakistan

What Is Nephrology and What Does a Nephrologist Do?


Nephrology is a branch of internal medicine that specializes in the treatment of kidney problems. You have two kidneys in your body. They’re on either side of your spine, underneath your ribs. The kidneys perform various important activities, including eliminating waste and excess fluid from the bloodstream and maintaining electrolyte balance in the body. nephrology nephrology nephrology

preserving your body’s electrolyte balance  

eliminating waste and extra fluid from the blood

releasing hormones that have roles such as blood pressure control

A nephrologist’s job

The best nephrologist in Islamabad is a doctor who specializes in the treatment of kidney problems. Nephrologists are experts not only in disorders that affect the kidneys, but they’re also well-versed in how renal disease or dysfunction can impact other regions of the body.

Although your primary care physician will attempt to prevent and cure kidney disease in its early stages, a nephrologist may be consulted to diagnose and treat more severe or complex kidney disorders.

Conditions a nephrologist treats

Nephrologists can work with you to help diagnose and treat the following conditions:

In the pee, there is blood or protein.

Chronic renal disease is a condition that affects the kidneys.

Kidney stones can be treated by a urologist as well.

Infections of the kidneys

Glomerulonephritis or interstitial nephritis cause kidney edema.

Kidney cancer is a malignancy of the kidneys.

polycystic kidney disease is a disease that affects the kidneys.

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a condition in which the body produces

Renal artery stenosis is the narrowing of the arteries that provide blood to the kidneys.

Nephrotic syndrome is a condition that affects the kidneys.

renal illness that has progressed to the terminal stage.

Acute and chronic renal failure are also possible.

A nephrologist can also be involved when other factors cause kidney disease or dysfunction, including:

high blood pressure


heart disease

autoimmune conditions, such as lupus


Laboratory tests regarding nephrology

A wide range of tests can be used to assess the function of your kidneys. These tests are typically performed on either a blood or urine sample.

Blood tests

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR). 

This test measures how well your kidneys are filtering your blood. GFR begins to decrease below normal levels in kidney disease.

Serum creatinine. 

Creatinine is a waste product and is present at higher levels in the blood of people with kidney dysfunction.

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN). 

As with creatinine, finding high levels of this waste product in the blood is a sign of kidney dysfunction.

Urine tests


This urine sample can be tested with a dipstick for pH as well as the presence of abnormal amounts of blood, glucose, protein, or bacteria.

Albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR). 

This urine test measures the amount of protein albumin in your urine. Albumin in the urine is a sign of kidney dysfunction.

24-hour urine collection. 

This method uses a special container to collect all of the urine that you produce during a 24-hour period. Further testing can be performed on this sample.

Creatinine clearance. 

This is a measure of creatinine from both a blood sample and a 24-hour urine sample that’s used to calculate the amount of creatinine that’s exited the blood and moved to the urine.

Procedures in nephrology

In addition to reviewing and interpreting the results of your laboratory tests, a nephrologist may also perform or work with other specialists on the following procedures:

imaging tests of the kidneys, such as ultrasounds, CT scans, or X-rays

dialysis, including placement of the dialysis catheter

kidney biopsies

kidney transplants

Differences between nephrology and urology

Because the kidneys are involved in both nephrology and urology, there is some overlap. A urologist focuses on diseases and problems that can impact the male and female urinary tract, whereas a nephrologist concentrates on diseases and conditions that directly affect the kidney.

The kidneys are part of the urinary tract, although it also contains the ureters, bladder, and urethra. The male reproductive organs, such as the penis, testes, and prostate, are also treated by urologists.

Conditions that a urologist may treat can include:

kidney stones

bladder infections

bladder control issues

erectile dysfunction

enlarged prostate

When to see a nephrologist (doctor of nephrology)

Your primary care doctor can help prevent and treat the early stages of kidney disease. However, sometimes these early stages may not have any symptoms or may have nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, sleep problems, and changes in the amount you urinate. Regular testing can monitor your kidney function, particularly if you’re at risk for kidney disease. These groups include people with:

high blood pressure


heart disease

a family history of kidney problems

Testing can detect signs of decreasing kidney function, such as a decreasing GFR value or an increase in the level of albumin in your urine. If your test results indicate rapid or continuing deterioration of kidney function, your doctor may refer you to a nephrologist.

Your doctor may also refer you to a nephrologist if you have any of the following:

advanced chronic kidney disease

large amounts of blood or protein in your urine

recurring kidney stones, though you may also be referred to a urologist for this

high blood pressure that’s still high even though you’re taking medications

a rare or inherited cause of kidney disease

How to find The Best Nephrologist:

If you need to see a nephrologist, your primary care doctor should be able to refer you to one. In some cases, your insurance company may require that you have a referral from your primary care doctor before you can visit a specialist. If you choose not to get a referral from your primary care doctor, check with your insurance company for a list of nearby specialists covered in your insurance network.

Causes of Renal Hypertension

Renal hypertension is caused by a narrowing in the arteries that deliver blood to the kidney. One or both kidneys’ arteries may be narrowed. This is a condition called renal artery stenosis. When the kidneys receive low blood flow, they act as if the low flow is due to dehydration. So they respond by releasing hormones that stimulate the body to retain sodium and water. Blood vessels fill with additional fluid, and blood pressure goes up.

The narrowing in one or both renal arteries is most often caused by atherosclerosis or the hardening of the arteries. This is the same process that leads to many heart attacks and strokes. A less common cause of the narrowing is fibromuscular dysplasia. This is a condition in which the structure of the renal arteries develops abnormally for unclear reasons.

Symptoms of Renal Hypertension

Renal hypertension usually causes no symptoms. The narrowing in the arteries can’t be felt. Unless it’s dangerously high, high blood pressure causes no symptoms, either. Symptoms of severely elevated blood pressure include:



Blurry or double vision

Bloody (pink-colored) urine



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