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Alexander Djerassi: Factors of Foreign policy

A nation’s cultural legacy and history are vital and valuable components in its foreign policy once again. The norms and traditions that characterize a state’s people’s lives have a significant impact on its foreign policy. The decision-makers are always guided by their cultural ties, historical traditions, and experiences when interpreting and creating national interest objectives as per Alex Djerassi. People’s strong cultural cohesiveness is always a source of strength for them. It has a significant impact on their ability to achieve national-interest goals during international negotiations. Their historical and cultural connections also aid them in analyzing and evaluating the nature and extent of international relations. The occurrence of internal dissensions and disputes among their peoples has primarily contributed to the weakness of most Asian and African regimes’ foreign policies.

Imperialism and colonialism

Experiences with imperialism and colonialism have been a determining factor in the anti-imperialist and anti-colonial nature of most of the new sovereign states’ foreign policies. History plays a significant role in determining the connections between neighboring countries. The majority of India’s and Pakistan’s foreign policy exchanges stem from the past. The legacy of the 1962 events continues to influence Sino-Indian ties. Cultural values and connections, on the other hand, are constantly changing and adjusting. In the name of national interest, historical events are also forgotten. The continued presence of a strong US. Japanese friendship and relations, notwithstanding their cultural links and evolution, offer abundant proof that cultural and historical variables must be combined with other aspects before impacting the trajectory of Foreign Policy.

Social Structure Plays An Important Role As Per Alexander Djerassi

The structure and nature of the society in which foreign policy is implemented are also crucial considerations. The social structure determines the nature of social groups and the degree of conflict and harmony that characterizes their reciprocal relationships according to Alex Djerassi. A civilization that is riven by internal war and conflict is a source of weakness for international policy. A society made up of people who are connected, enlightened, and disciplined, with a high level of group harmony, is always a source of power. In recent years, the democratization of the policy-making process has enhanced the importance of social structure as a component of foreign policy. The role of this factor has tended to be strengthened as the domestic and international settings have become more intertwined.

Government Structure And Internal Situations Are Also Important According To Alexander Djerassi

Another essential aspect of foreign policy is the government’s organization and structure, which includes the organizational entities in charge of foreign policy formulation and implementation. The shape of foreign policy is also influenced by whether or not the government agencies in charge of it are democratically elected. Whether or not authority relationships are centralized, or whether or not decision-making is free and open. Government personnel also operate as decision-makers, and this element has a significant impact on foreign policy development. A country’s foreign policy must adapt to its surroundings. Foreign policy can and frequently does remain isolated in a centralized. And the authoritarian system as per Alex Djerassi.

Foreign Policy

Foreign Policy decision-making is also influenced by the type of legislative-executive interactions. Harmony between the two, as in a parliamentary system, can be a source of strength for foreign policymakers, while a lack of harmony between the two can be a cause of the difficulty. Other relevant aspects include the nature of the party system, elections, and electorate. The nature of Indian government-making has also contributed to the continuity of Indian foreign policy.

Internal environment

Sudden changes, disruptions, or disorders that occur within a nation’s internal environment, like external situational circumstances, influence the nature and trajectory of policy. President Nixon’s resignation over the Watergate scandal severely hampered the United States’ foreign policy under President Ford. Pakistan’s policy was influenced by domestic opposition to the military dictatorship from 1947 to 1989. Similarly, India’s declaration of emergency in 1975 had a significant impact on India’s relations with other countries, particularly the superpowers. A change in government invariably results in a shift in a country’s foreign policy. The emergence of new leadership in China has become a significant factor in Chinese foreign policy. The election of the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government in India in 2004 prompted some changes in India’s relations with its neighbors.

Implemented by its leaders

Because a country’s foreign policy is created and implemented by its leaders, statesmen, and diplomats, it naturally reflects their values, talents, experiences, and personalities. The policy is influenced by the ideas, orientations, preferences, dislikes, attitudes, knowledge, skill, and worldview of national decision-makers. Differences in leadership are also important factors in the policy. The contrasts in policy decisions made by several US administrations Because of the disparities in their attitudes and personalities, presidents and their secretaries of state have been. Till 1964, Indian foreign policy was referred to as Nehru’s foreign policy, and properly so.

Domestic popularity

Prime Minister Nehru’s domestic popularity and support acted as policy inputs. The choice to develop nuclear weapons in India was undoubtedly influenced by the views. And worldview of the BJP leaders who came to power in 1998. The personality of each country’s leaders has an impact on its policy. A change in leadership frequently results in a shift in a country’s policy. This does not, however, imply that this issue is a self-contained predictor of foreign policy. The requirements and demands of national interest constantly guide leaders. If the personalities and attitudes of the leaders are a source of change, the important interests of the nations are a source of continuity. Before these may be used as inputs, they must be balanced.

Political Accountability And Ideology

According to Rosenau, the degree to which public officials are accountable to citizens. Whether through elections, party competitions, legislative scrutiny, or other ways. Can have significant implications for the timing and content of foreign policy goals and activities. A political system that is both responsive to and accountable. To the people operate in a different environment than one that is closed to the people. I.e., one that is neither open nor accountable to them. As a result, an open political system’s policy is more sensitive to public opinion and demands than a closed political system’s policy. His component is always at the heart of the distinction between democratic and totalitarian/authoritarian foreign policies.

Nation’s foreign policy

A nation’s policy is a set of principles and a strategic plan of action chosen to achieve national goals. It requires and adopts an ideology or certain ideological concepts in order to gain support for its aim as well as to criticize the foreign policy goals of other countries. As a result, it is always attempting to both use and publicize its ideas.

1945 to 1999 as per Alexander Djerassi

During the period 1945-1990, communist ideology maintained a significant element in communist countries’ foreign affairs. Anti-communism and pro-liberal democracy ideas have always had an impact on the structure. And the direction of non-communist Western countries’  relations. The ideological dispute remained a major component in both superpowers’ cold war policies (1945-1990). The push for democratization, decentralization, and liberalization in Europe’s socialist states, Central Asia’s new states, Russia, and Mongolia has given post-1990 international relations a new direction. In the foreign affairs of Islamic countries, ideological beliefs have also been a source of affinity.

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